Bob Sadino

Bob Sadino (Lampung, March 9, 1933), or fondly called uncle Bob, was a businessman from Indonesia who do business in the field of food and livestock. He is the owner of the business network and Kemchick Kemfood. On many occasions, he was often seen using a short-sleeved shirt and shorts that became his trademark. Bob Sadino born from an affluent family living. He was the youngest of five children. When her parents died, Bob, who was then 19 years old inherited all family property because other siblings are considered to be living well established.

Bob then spent most of his wealth to travel the world. In his journey, he stopped in the Netherlands and settled for approximately 9 years. There, he worked at Djakarta Lylod in Amsterdam and also in Hamburg, Germany. While living in Holland, Bob met his life partner, Soelami Soejoed.

In 1967, Bob and the family returned to Indonesia. He brought along two of his Mercedes, made in the 1960s. One of them he sold to buy land in Kemang, South Jakarta, while others keep it save. After a long stay and live in Indonesia, Bob decided to quit his job because he has the determination to work independently.

Dilakoninya first job after leaving the company is renting a car Mercedes that he had, he himself became his driver. But unfortunately, once he got an accident that resulted in his car badly damaged. Because no money to fix it, Bob turned the work into a mason. His salary when it is only Rp 100. He also had suffered depression due to the pressures of life they experienced.

One day, her friend suggested that Bob raised chicken to fight depression. Bob’s interested. When raising chickens that appear inspiration entrepreneurship. Bob’s attention to the life of the chickens flocks. He was inspired, the chicken can only fight for life, of any human being can, too.

As a chicken farmer, Bob and his wife, every day to sell several pounds of eggs. Within one and a half years, he and his wife have many customers, especially foreigners, because they are fluent in English. Bob and his wife lived in the area of ​​Kemang, Jakarta, where there are many foreigners settled.

Not infrequently the couple dimaki customers, maid stranger though. But they are the mirror to ourselves, to improve services. Drastic changes had to happen to Bob, from personal feudal become servants. After that, over time the silver-haired Bob, became sole owner of the super market (supermarkets), Kem Chicks. He always appears simple with a short-sleeved shirt and shorts.

Bob supermarket business growing rapidly, reaching into agribusiness, especially horticulture, managing vegetable gardens for the consumption of foreigners in Indonesia. Because of that he also formed a partnership with farmers in some areas.

Bob believes that every step of success is always preceded failures. Journey self-employment is not as smooth as a thought. He and his wife often turned upside down. For him money is not the number one. The important thing is the willingness, commitment, courage to seek and seize opportunities.

In the mind of someone doing something develops, the plan does not always have the raw and stiff, which is in a person is the development of what he has done. The weakness of many people, too much thinking to make a plan so he did not immediately step. “The most important action,” said Bob.

Bob The success is inseparable from ignorance, so he immediately jumped into the field. After ups and downs, Bob skilled and master the field. The process is different from Bob’s success has been customary, it should start from the science, then practice, and become skilled and professional.
According to Bob, many people who start from the knowledge, thinking and acting sophisticated, arrogant, because they feel has the knowledge more than others.

While Bob was always flexible to the customer, want to listen to suggestions and complaints. With attitudes like that Bob won the sympathy of customers and able to create a market. According to Bob, customer satisfaction will create self-satisfaction. So he always tried to serve our customers best.

Bob put his company like a family. Kem Chicks All family members should respect each other, nothing major, all have functions and powers.

Children Teacher

Back to soil water in 1967, after many years in Europe with his last job as an employee Djakarta Lloyd in Amsterdam and Hamburg, Bob, the youngest of five children, only one determination, self-employed. His father, Sadino, Solo man who became head teacher in junior high and high school Tanjungkarang, died when Bob was 19.

Capital which he had brought from Europe, two Mercedes sedans made in the 1960s. One he sold to buy land in Kemang, South Jakarta. At that time, Kemang area quiet, still lie fields and gardens. While other car ditaksikan, Bob own driver.

One time, the car was rented. Apparently, not money back, but the news accident that destroyed his car. “I had a broken heart,” said Bob. Loss of income sources, Bob then worked so Coolie. In fact, if he wanted to, his wife, Soelami Soejoed, experienced as a secretary in foreign countries, could save the situation. But Bob insisted, “I am the head of the family. I have to make a living. ”

To soothe the mind, Bob accepted the award 50 chickens race of his acquaintances, Sri Mulyono Herlambang. From here Bob climb: He managed to become sole owner and businessman Kem Chicks vegetable fields hydroponic system. Then there Kem Food, meat processing plant in Pulogadung, and a “stall” shaslik in Blok M, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta. Note the beginning of 1985 showed, on average per month Bob companies sell 40 to 50 tons of fresh meat, 60 to 70 tons of processed meat, and 100 tons of fresh vegetables.

“I live from fantasy,” said Bob describes his business success. Father of two children and then give examples of the results fantasies, can sell water spinach Rp 1,000 per kilogram. “Wherever there are no people selling water spinach with prices that much,” said Bob.

Uncle Bob, close calls for his men, did not want to move beyond the food business. For him, the field is practiced now is not inexhaustible. So he did not want to fantasize that all sorts.

Hajj this quirky-looking, big fan of classical music and jazz. The moments of the most beautiful for him, when praying with his wife and two childre

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Ali ibn Abi Talib is one of the earliest religion of Islam

Ali ibn Abi Talib is one of the earliest religion of Islam (assabiqunal awwalun), cousin Rasullullah Saw., And also the last Caliph Caliphate Kulafaur Rasyidin as viewed by Sunnis. But for the Shia Islam, Ali was the first caliph and first imam of the 12 Shiite imams.
Ali was born in Mecca, Hejaz region, Arabian Peninsula, on the 13th of Rajab. According to historians, Ali was born 10 years before the start of prophethood of Muhammad, about the year 600 AD. He real name Haydar ibn Abu Talib. However Rasullullah Saw. Ali did not like him and call him that means having a high degree with Allah.

When Rasullullah Saw. began to spread Islam, Ali was 10 years old. But he believes Rasullullah Saw. and be the first convert to Islam from among the children. Her adolescence was spent to learn a lot together so that Ali Rasullullah grow into smart young man, brave, and wise. If Rasullullah Saw. is a repository of knowledge, then Ali is like the key to unlock the warehouse.
When Rasullullah Saw. hijrah, he replaces Rasullullah sleep in his bed so that the people of Quraish who sought the prophet be deceived. After the hijrah and living in Medina, Ali married the Prophet’s beloved daughter Fatimah az-Zahra.
Ali not only grow into smart young man, but also brave in the battlefield. Together Dzulfikar, sword, Ali brings a lot of merit in a variety of battlefield victories like the Battle of Badr, Battle Ditch, and the Battle of Khaibar.
After the death of Rasullullah, disputes arise about who will be appointed Deputy. The Shias believe the Prophet Mohammed has been preparing for Ali as caliph. But Ali was considered too young to have served as caliph. In the end, Abu Bakr who was appointed as the first caliph.
After the murder of Uthman ibn Affan, the Islamic political situation became chaotic. On the basis of these, Zubair bin Awwam and Talhah bin Ubaidillah urged Ali soon became caliph. Ali then dibaiat rollicking, making it the first caliph dibaiat widely. But the political urgency make Ali must endure a difficult task to complete.
The first civil war within Islam, Siffin War broke out followed by the outbreak of slander surrounding the death of Uthman bin Affan Ali as caliph makes the position difficult. He died at the age of 63 years for murder by Abdrrahman bin Muljam, someone who comes from a class of Khawarij (dissidents) when mengimami dawn prayers at the mosque of Kufa, on the 19th of Ramadan, and Ali’s last breath on 21 Ramadan years 40 AH. Ali was buried secretly in Najaf, even some history stating that he was buried elsewhere.
Furthermore, the chair of the Caliphate held by the hereditary Umayyad family with the first Caliph Muawiyah. Thus ended the Caliphate Kulafaur Rasyidin.

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Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm

Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 from the couple Immanuel Nobel and Andriette Ahlsell. The father is an engineer and businessman in the construction field who also likes to experiment, especially in terms of destruction of buildings and stone which is strongly associated with the profession. Later, this is the business lines that drive to find a dynamite Alfred Nobel as explosives.

When Alfred was born, Immanuel business crash. This prompted him to move to other countries, namely Finland and Russia. His family was left in Stockholm. Despite coming from a wealthy family, Andriette have tenacity and ability to work hard are amazing. In order to make ends meet his family, he opened a grocery store in Stockholm and reap the wealth is not small.

In 1842 Immanuel Nobel family reunited in Russia. Immanuel is a new business, namely the field of machinery on the rise and success because of the contract with the Russian military as a provider of equipment used in the Crimean War against England. His company also makes marine and land mines needed for the Russian government.

Nobel family settled in Saint Petersburg and the simple life, although actually be engaged in luxury. Immanuel invest his fortune in the education of their children. Alfred and his brother did not undergo any formal education in schools. They are privately educated at home under educated teachers who are competent in their respective fields.

The results of such education is very visible in Alfred. Under the guidance of a Swedish teacher, Lars Santesson, he finally has a very deep interest in literature and philosophy. Ivan Peterov Immanuel teach kids math, physics, and chemistry. All children Immanuel fluent in Swedish, Russian, Russia, France, Britain, and Germany. Alfred himself to master the language at the age of 17.

Although education receives the same base, Alfred chose a different path with his brothers. Ludvig and Robert engaged in the engineering field, while Alfred chose to explore the science of chemistry. Professor Nikolai N. Zinin, the chemistry teacher, is the person who introduced Alfred and Immanuel will nitroglycerine in the future.

Studying chemical engineering

Alfred Nobel was very interested in youth literature, physics, and chemistry. He also classified as a melancholic personal because it is very like making poetry. After him, he recorded a personal library consisting of 1,500 books ranging from science, philosophy, to theology and history. The works of Lord Byron, poet from England, so he enjoy doing.

Philosophy helped fill his youth. Just because you want to test the ability of berbahasanya (and of course the intellectual as well), Alfred Nobel Voltaire translated from French to Swedish language and re-wrote it in French. Thought Locke, Alexander von Humboldt, and Benedict Spinoza was dilahapnya with ease.

Apparently, Immanuel do not agree with Alfred craze. He hoped that Alfred joined the family enterprise, especially as an engineer. Immanuel effort to divert attention from the literary world Alfred realized by sending Alfred abroad. Immanuel want for their children quiet and introverted little was studying chemical engineering science and open their horizons.

Alfred began traveling since 1850 until 1852. The first country he visited was the United States. There he learned the latest technologies. His education was continued in Paris, France. Professor T.J. Pelouze accept to work in his private laboratory on the recommendation given by Professor Zinin, a former chemistry teacher.

Zinin himself was a disciple of Pelouze. Pelouze is a professor at the Collge de France and also a close friend of Berzelius, Swedish chemist.

What happened in Paris was long tails on the business of Alfred Nobel later. The town also makes a chemist Alfred acquainted with young students who come from Italy Pelouze, Ascanio Sobrero. Sobrero three years earlier, in 1847, found liquid chemicals called with pyroglicerine (now called nitroglycerin). He explains to Alfred, this material has a high explosive power, but he did not know how to control the resulting explosion.

Nitroglycerin produced from mixing the glycerin with nitric and sulfuric acid or the nitrated glycerol. This material is dangerous because it is explosive. Although it has destroyed the power exceeds gunpowder (Gunpowder), but this fluid can easily explode if pressure and temperature increase. Alfred Nobel was interested in knowing more about the nitroglycerine and wants to involve its use in the construction business.

Insolvent

In 1852 Immanuel Nobel business progressed very rapidly in line with the increasing severity of the Crimean War. The Russian government will order the equipment of war increases. Alfred Emmanuel commanded to return to Russia to help his family business.

Based on the knowledge gained during in Paris, Alfred and his father conducted a series of experiments to produce the nitroglycerin in large quantities and can be used in commercial purposes.

The idea will be studies of nitroglycerin comes also from Professor Zinin who held a demonstration would be the use of nitroglycerin for military purposes. At the demonstration, Zinin poured a few drops of nitroglycerine which then hit causing a loud explosion. However, it turns out that react only fluid that is in contact with the pressure, the rest remain.

Immanuel was trying to involve them in the Crimean War, but all failed and do not work. According to Alfred in the future, his father, who carried out experiments by mixing nitroglycerin with gunpowder only done on a small scale.

Crimean War was finally over after the signing of the Treaty of Paris on March 30, 1856. This event resulted in a second bankruptcy for Immanuel and forced him to leave Russia and return to Sweden. Robert and Ludvig stayed in Russia and develop a business machine that would later establish the Russian oil company called Brothers Nobel or Branobel.

“Kieselguhr”

Approximately in 1860, Alfred held a series of personal experiments. Eventually she began successfully producing nitroglycerine without any significant problems. Its success is a first advantage over Sobrero.

Alfred then mixing nitroglycerin with gunpowder and burning it with the help axis. The father who did a similar experiment quite furious. She thought it was his idea. Alfred also explained what he was doing, so that any anger subsided Immanuel. The work of Alfred Nobel will be called by blasting liquid oil is also contained in the patent in October 1863, at the age of 30.

After that, the shadow of Alferd Nobel success began to appear gradually. In the spring and next summer, he returned the research and finally find out the mechanism of nitroglycerin production simpler and introduce the use of detonators in blasting. Both also eventually patented his discovery.

Despite relatively melancholy, Alfred Nobel was not the one who slowly recovering from grief. In September 1864, in Stockholm, Alfred factory exploded and killed his brother, Emil Nobel. One month later, he included the company in the stock market.

Great success was achieved. The factory was more scattered across the world. He bought a parcel of land in Hamburg, Germany, and set up factories there. Factories in the United States was built in 1866 after fighting a variety of bureaucratic obstacles and similar business practices.

The success did not dampen the success of Alfred attention on a very digemarinya areas, namely research. He finally knew, nitroglycerin can be absorbed by a porous material that has a shape that are portable, can be brought anywhere, and safe.

While living in Germany, he finally found the material. This material is known as kieselguhr, which is made from silica sand pengabsorb derived from algae diatomae shell. Kieselguhr make nitroglycerine has a shape, being able mengabsorb liquid chemicals. Thus, this mixture can be easily placed in the bombed and taken anywhere without fear of explosion.

This is where the dynamite came from. Dynamite comes from the Greek word dynamis, meaning power or power. 1867 is also a golden age for the Alfred Nobel since dinamitnya patent approval in various countries such as Sweden, Britain and the United States. Dynamite was found during pneumatic drilling machines and diamond are used for similar purposes. It is not surprising that the involvement of dynamite greatly reduce the time, effort, and cost in construction projects.

In 1868 Alfred Nobel and his father received an award Letterstedt Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. This award is given to anyone who produces a valuable discovery for mankind. The idea comes also from the Nobel Prize awards earned by Alfred Nobel in Sweden.

The flurry of business and he often traveled abroad only leaving little time for his personal life. At the age of 43 she was feeling lonely. This prompted him to make friends at home and also private secretary to the way advertise in the newspaper. Applicants came. But the choice finally fell on the Countess Bertha Kinsky, an Austrian noblewoman.

Introduction to the Countess did not last long because the Countess Bertha Kinsky had to marry Count Arthur von Suttner. Nevertheless, they kept in touch through letters. Bertha von Suttner was not a woman at random. He was classified as a thinker and world peace activist who later produced a book titled “Lay Down Your Arms”. Many people who do not doubt the influence of Bertha von Suttner in shaping the ideas of Alfred Nobel for giving his wealth in the form of prizes for those who strongly supports the peace of the world. Bertha von Suttner himself received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905.

Excess Alfred Nobel that really stand out is its ability to combine style ala deep thinking philosopher and scientist with a distant views to the front and the dynamic that is often owned by an industrialist. He is also interested in social issues and not infrequently also catapult ideas that are categorized as radical for that time. Literature and writing poetry as well they do.

Abundant wealth and the absence of descendants to make him confused about to be given to anyone who owned property. On 27 November 1895 he wrote his will in the presence of the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris. In 1891 in moved from Paris heading to San Remo, Italy where he died of a brain hemorrhage on December 10, 1896. He produced 355 patents during his lifetime.

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Diah Permata Megawati called Complete or Setiawati Sukarnoputri Megawati

Diah Permata Megawati called Complete or Setiawati Sukarnoputri Megawati Sukarnoputri greeted familiar born in Yogyakarta, 23 January 1947. Prior to his appointment as president, he was Vice President of the 8th under Abdurrahman Wahid administration. Megawati is the eldest daughter of the first President who is also proclaimer, Sukarno and Fatmawati. Megawati, was originally married to pilot Air Force Flight Lieutenant, Surendro and blessed with two sons named Mohammad and Mohammad Rizki Pratama Prananda.

At a military assignment, in 1970, in East Indonesia, a pilot Surendro joint military plane missing in action. Agony matchless, while small children and babies. However, the suffering was not prolonged, three years later, Megan is married to a man named Taufik Kiemas, Ogan origin Komiring Ulu, Palembang. Happy family life increases, with blessed with a daughter Puan Maharani. Megawati’s childhood life is passed in the State Palace. Since childhood, Megawati has been nimble and likes to play ball with his brother Gunter. As a girl child, Megawati has the hobby of dancing and often shown in front of state guests who visited the Palace.

Women’s full name Dyah Permata Megawati Sukarnoputri is to start his education, from elementary to high school at the University Cikini, Jakarta. Meanwhile, he had studied at two universities, namely the Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Bandung (1965-1967) and the Faculty of Psychology, University of Indonesia (1970-1972). Although born of a family of politicians topnotch, Mbak Mega – close calls his supporters – are not regarded expert in the political world. In fact, Megawati was underestimated by friends and his political opponents. He even considered a newcomer in politics, which is new in 1987. At that time the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI), placing it as one of his legislative candidates from the electoral district of Central Java, to boost the sound.

Megawati The entry into politics, means he has to deny his family agreed not to plunge into politics. Ditabraknya political trauma that family. Megawati’s campaign appears to be excellent in the PDI, although classified as not much to say. Sure enough, it worked. Vote for the PDI rose. And he was elected to the DPR / MPR. In the same year was elected as Chairman of Megawati PDI Central Jakarta.

However, the presence of Megan at the parliament building did not seem to feel. Apparently, Megawati knows that he is still under pressure. In addition to its nature is reserved, belaiu also chose not to stand out considering the political situation at that time. So belaiu selects more to lobby political representatives of the people outside the building. Political lobby, a silent operation, it is directly or indirectly, has led to rising political star in the world of Mega. In 1993 he was elected chairman of the PDI. This is very surprising the government at that time.

The process of increase in this Mega is an interesting story as well. At that time, PDI Congress in Medan ended without producing any decisions. The Government supports Budi Hardjono replace Soerjadi. Then, followed by the Extraordinary Congress held in Surabaya. At this congress, the name appears and by a landslide Mega outperformed Budi Hardjono, candidates backed by the government. Megawati was elected as Chairman of the PDI. Then Mega status as Chairman of the PDI boosted again by the National Congress of PDI in Jakarta.

But the government refused and considered illegal. Therefore, in subsequent trips, the government supports the strength to pry Mega as Chairman of the PDI. Fatimah Ahmad cs, for the support of government, held a PDI congress in Medan in 1996, to raise back Soerjadi. But Megan is not easily conquered. Because Mega clearly states do not recognize Congress in Medan. Mega firmly declared himself as the legitimate chairman of the PDI. PDI headquarters on Jalan Diponegoro, as a symbol of the legitimate existence of the DPP, controlled by the Mega. Supporters of Megawati did not want to recede a single step. They still try to maintain that office.

Soerjadi who supported the government also gave the threat to seize by force that the PDI office. The threat could become reality. Morning, dated July 27, 1996 Soerjadi group actually won the PDI headquarters of Megawati supporters. However, it did not dampen Mega step. In fact, he’s getting resistance memantap raising measures. Political pressure against Megan’s very naked, menundang empathy and sympathy from the wider community.

Megan continues to struggle. PDI became two. Namely, the PDI leader Megawati and the PDI leadership Soerjadi. PDI is more impartial and recognize Megan. However, it recognizes the Soerjadi as Chairman of the PDI is legitimate. As a result, PDI leader Megawati can not come Election 1997. After the New Order regime collapsed, PDI Mega changed its name to Democratic Party of Struggle. A political party bearing the white bull-mouthed fat and managed to win the 1999 elections by winning over thirty percent of the vote. PDIP victory that put Megan on the position of the most worthy to be president than any other party cadres. But it turns out the MPR 1999, Mega lose.

But second place is apparently a later stage in time to stabilize Mega on the number one position in this country. For less than two years, precisely dated July 23, 2001 members of the Assembly by acclamation place to sit as President Megawati 5th replaces KH Abdurrahman Wahid. Megawati became president until October 20, 2003. Having finished his term in office, Megawati re-run for president in a direct presidential election in 2004. However, he failed to return as president after losing to Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, who eventually became President of the 6th.

Bios:

Name:
Dr. (HC) Hj. Megawati Sukarnoputri
Full Name:
Dyah Permata Megawati Sukarnoputri Setyawati
Born:
Yogyakarta, January 23, 1947
Religion:
Islam
Husband:
Taufik Kiemas
Children:
3 people, (2 sons, 1 daughter)

Career:
:: 5th President of Indonesia (2001-2004)
:: Vice President (1999 – 2001)
:: Members of the DPR / MPR RI (1999)
:: Members of the DPR / MPR RI (1987-1992)
Organization:
:: Chairman of the DPP PDIP, April 2000-2005 and 2005-2009

Home Address:
:: Teuku Umar Street 27-A, Jakarta Pusat
:: Jl. Kebagusan IV No. 45 RT 010 RW 04, Kel. Kebagusan Kec. Pasar Minggu, South Jakarta

Career Development
1. Members of the National Student Movement Indonsia (Bandung), (1965)
2. Members of the House of Representatives, (1993)
3. Member of Commission IV Fraction PDI
4. PDI Chairman of Central Jakarta, Member of Parliament FPDI, (1987-1997)
5. Chairman of the PDI version
6. Kemang General Assembly (1993-present) led PDI was renamed the Democratic Party of Struggle in 1999-now
7. Vice President, (October 1999-23 July 2001)
8. 5th President, (July 23 2001-2004)
Educational travel
1. Cikini Jakarta Elementary Education, (1954-1959)
2. Junior College Cikini Jakarta, (1960-1962)
3. Senior College Cikini Jakarta, (1963-1965)
4. Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University in Bandung (1965-1967), (not finished)
5. Psychology Faculty University of Indonesia (1970-1972), (not finished).

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Benazir Bhutto

Benazir Bhutto (born in Karachi, Pakistan, June 21, 1953) was the first woman to lead a Muslim state in post-colonial period. The charismatic Bhutto was elected Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1988, but 20 months later, the president deposed by country’s military-backed, Ghulam Ishaq Khan who controversially used the 8th Amendment to dissolve parliament and force an election. Bhutto was re-elected in 1993, but dismissed three years later amid various corruption scandals by the president in power at that time, Farooq Leghari, who also used the powers given special consideration by the 8th Amendment.

Bhutto was the eldest son of former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (who was hanged by Pakistan’s military government under exceptional circumstances) and Begum Nusrat Bhutto, a Kurdish-Iranian. Her paternal grandfather was Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, a Sindhi and a key figure in Pakistan’s independence movement.

Benazir learn in kindergarten Lady Jennings and then in the Convent of Jesus and Mary in Karachi. After two years studying at the Rawalpindi Presentation Convent, she was sent to the Jesus and Mary Convent at Murree. She passed her O-level exam (in the British education system, equivalent to high school grade 1). In April 1969, he was accepted at Radcliffe College, Harvard University. In June 1973, Benazir graduated from Harvard with a degree in political science. He also was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He then attended Oxford University in the fall of 1973 and graduated with a Master’s Degree in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. He was elected President of the prestigious Oxford Union.

After completing his university education, Benazir returned to Pakistan, but because his father was jailed and later sentenced to death, he was placed under house arrest. After being allowed to return to England in 1984, he became the leader of Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), the party of his father, in exile, but he can not make political power can be felt in Pakistan until the death of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.

November 16, 1988, in a first open election in more than ten years, the party of Bhutto, PPP, managed to get the number of seats in the National Assembly. Bhutto was sworn in as Prime Minister of a coalition government on December 2, 1988, and by age 35 he became the youngest person and first woman to lead a country with a majority of Muslim people in modern times.

Once dismissed by the president of Pakistan at that time on corruption charges, Bhutto’s party lost the general elections held in October. He became leader of the opposition while Nawaz Sharif became prime minister during the next three years. When elections were held again in October 1993, which was won by a coalition of PPP, which Bhutto returns to the office until 1996, when his government once again be dissolved over allegations of corruption.

Benazir accused of corruption but later his name cleared. He was also accused of laundering money in banks in Switzerland, in a case that still remain in the Swiss courts. Her husband, Asif Ali Zardari, spent eight years languishing in prison, although he was never convicted. He was placed in a separate detention and torture claims. Groups of human rights also claimed that Zardari’s rights have been violated. Former prime minister Nawaz Sharif has recently apologized for his involvement in the prolonged detention of Mr Zardari and the cases filed against Benazir. Zardari was released in November 2004.

Benazir since 1999 lived in exile in Dubai, United Arab Emirates where he was caring for the child and his mother who suffered from Alzheimer’s disease. He also traveled the world to give lectures and still maintain its relationship with the supporters of Pakistan People’s Party.

Benazir and her three children (Bilawal, Bakhtawar, and Asifa) were reunited with her husband and their father in December 2004 after more than five years apart. Bhutto has vowed to return to Pakistan and run again as Prime Minister in elections scheduled in November 2007. October 18, 2007, he returned to Pakistan to prepare for facing elections. On the way to a meeting, two bombs exploded near the group that brought them. Bhutto survived, but at least 126 people were killed in the incident.

Bios:

Born: Karachi, Pakistan, June 21, 1953

Position: Former Pakistan Prime Minister

Political Parties: Pakistan People’s Party (PPP)

Father: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Husband: Asif Ali Zardari

Children:

* Bilawal
* Bakhtawar
* Asifa

Education:

* Kindergarten Lady Jennings
* Convent of Jesus and Mary in Karachi
* Rawalpindi Presentation Convent
* Jesus and Mary Convent at Murree
* Degree in Political Science from Radcliffe College at Harvard University (April 1969 – June 1973)
* Masters Degree in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics from Oxford University (graduated in 1973)

Career:

* The leader of Pakistan People’s Party (PPP, 1984)
* Prime Minister of Pakistan (December 2, 1988 – August 6, 1990 and 18 July 1993-5 November 1996)

Books:

* Benazir Bhutto, Foreign Policy in Perspective (1978)
* Benazir Bhutto, The Way Out: Interviews, Impressions, Statements, and Messages, Mahmood Publications (1988)
* Benazir Bhutto, Daughter of The East, Hamish Hamilton (1989)
* Benazir Bhutto, Daughter of Destiny, Simon and Schuster (1989)
* Benazir Bhutto, Benazir Bhutto Defends Herself, Rhotas Books (1990)
* Benazir Bhutto, Issues in Pakistan, Jang Publishers (1993)

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Ibnu Rusydi

Ibnu Rusydi was born in 1126 AD in Qurtubah (Cordoba) from a prominent aristocratic family. His father was a lawyer who is influential in Cordoba, and many relatives who occupy important positions in government. Kelauarga background is highly influenced the formation of his intellectual level in the future. Abul al-Walid Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Averroes, later better known as Averroes or Averrous, is a highly influential Muslim scholars in the 12th century and the next few centuries.

He was a philosopher who had been instrumental tradition of integrating Islam with Greek thought. Averroes greatness as a thinker is strongly influenced by the zeitgeist or spirit of his time. The 12th century and several centuries before a golden age for the development of science in the Muslim world, centered on the Peninsula Andalusia (Spain) under Dynasty Abasiyah. Muslim rulers at that time was supporting the very development of science, even they often ordered the scientists to explore the Greek intellectual legacy remains, so that the names of the great Greek scientists such as Aristotle, Plato, Phitagoras, or Euclid with his work still remains preserved until now.

Twists and turns of life’s journey is very interesting thinker. Averroes can be classified as a scientist is complete. Apart from being a philosopher, he is also known as an expert in the field of medicine, literature, logic, sciences must, in addition to Islamic knowledge is mastered well, especially in the interpretation of the Qur’an and Hadith, or in the field of law and jurisprudence. Even the greatest works in the field of medicine, namely Al Kuliyat Fil-Tibb or (Common Things of Medical Sciences) has become a major reference in the medical field.

Exceptional intelligence and deep understanding in many disciplines, cause he was appointed head qadi or justices of Cordoba, position ever held by his grandfather in the reign of al Almoravids Dynasty in Africa Utara.Posisi a prestigious and of course dream of many people. He held that position during the reign of Abu Ya’kub Khalihaf Caliph Abu Yusuf and his son Joseph.

The most important of Averroes progress in science was his attempt to translate and complement the works of Greek thinkers, especially the works of Aristotle and Plato, who has influence over the centuries. Between the years 1169-1195, Averroes wrote a commentary in terms of Aristotle’s works, such as De Organon, De Anima, Phiysica, Metaphisica, De Partibus Animalia, Parna Naturalisi, Metodologica, Rhetorica, and Nichomachean Ethick. All comments included in a Latin version of the complete works of Aristotle. His comments are very influential in the formation of the intellectual tradition of the Jews and the Christians.

Analysis has been able to present a complete thought of Aristotle. He also completed his study with menggunanakan classical commentaries from Themisius, Alexander of Aphiordisius, al-Farabi in his Falasifah, and the commentary of Ibn Sina. Commentary on Aristotle’s experiment on the natural sciences, showing an uncanny ability to produce an observation. [Sparks Faith Magazine Year I No.6 December 2000]

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Kaskus is the site of Indonesia’s largest virtual community forum

Kaskus is the site of Indonesia’s largest virtual community forum. Kaskus was born on November 6, 1999 by three young men from Indonesia who currently studying in Seattle, the United States. Kaskus originally developed by Andrew, Ronald, and Budi was made to fulfill their coursework. The initial concept Kaskus is actually a site that is able to alleviate the thirst of Indonesian students going abroad through the hometown news Indonesia.

Site http://www.kaskus.us currently managed by PT. Darta Media Indonesia. Its members, who currently number more than 2 million members, not only from Indonesia but domiciled also spread to other countries. Kaskus Users generally come from teenagers to adults.

Kaskus, which stands for enormous buzz, started from a hobby of a small community that later evolved to the present. Kaskus visited by at least 600,000 people, with the number exceeding 15 million pageviews per day. Until now Kaskus already has more than 200 million posts.

According to Alexa.com, in September 2010 Kaskus is ranked 257 and was ranked the world’s sixth most visited site in Indonesia.

Kaskus Radio is an Internet Radio kaskus Indonesia under the auspices of the community. Radio Kaskus is commonly abbreviated as KR has more than 20 broadcasters. Radio is playing the song for 24 hours is also playing the songs of various languages, English, Mandarin, Japanese, Korean, and many more.

History

In August 2005, PC Magazine Indonesia awarded Kaskus site as the best site and the largest community, then Kaskus website was re-elected as the best choice PC Magazine readers in 2006.

On May 23, 2006 Kaskus management was forced to change the domain from. Com becomes. Us, because the spread of the virus Brontok created with the aim of attacking the sites of Indonesia where Kaskus entry in the target of attack.

Beginning April 2007, the management Kaskus add 2 new servers to improve site performance Kaskus (Dell server).

In July 2008, the manager finally decided to operate Kaskus Kaskus server in Indonesia. For this purpose Kaskus buy eight servers Dell PowerEdge 2950 and operated through a network of open IXP. As a result of this access Kaskus multiply and eventually the manager plans to add eight more servers so that the total of which will be operating in September is 16 servers.

Data as of September 2010, the number of servers Kaskus already numbering more than 50 servers because of rapid growth (average users added per day reached more than 3000 people).

DDOS attack

On 16-17 May 2008, Kaskus DDoS attack using a technique (Distributed Denial of Service) by the individual that allegedly came from YogyaFree community. This attack causes Kaskus corrupted database so that administrators are forced to lock the existing threads.

The attacks were allegedly associated with the destruction events (deface) YogyaFree site a few days earlier. An attacker who claimed himself as one member Kaskus also declaim a mocking tone in one part of the forum YogyaFree. This has led some members YogyaFree furious, and then back Kaskus with DDoS attacks. As a result, was forced to shut down the server administrator Kaskus Kaskus (assault resulting in threads that have been made had to be locked (lock)).

Cyber ​​war between the two communities was finally completed when the two signed a memorandum online site manager to finish disputes between them. Such messages dipampang for several weeks on their respective pages.

Despite the damage inflicted by this attack is quite heavy, promising that Kaskus Kaskus administrator will return to normal in July 2008, along with the launch of a new server in the building Cyber ​​Kaskus, Jakarta. However, he also said that the data that will be raised back is data that was published prior to 2008, while the data created during the year 2008 not be recalled.

UU ITE

Before UU ITE enacted, Kaskus has two controversial forum, bb17 and Fight Club. Bb17 (short for open-aperture 17 years) is an adult forum where users can share both pictures and adult stories. Meanwhile, the Fight Club is a forum dedicated as a place to argue that truly free without controlled. Often debated issues related to SARA. Affront to common ethnic and religious.

After the enactment of UU ITE, bb17 Kaskus immediately shut because contrary to the Act ITE about the spread of pornographic material. Fight Club changed its name to the Debate Club. Fight Club and Debate Club basically has the same function as a place for debate, it’s just tightened controls on the Debate Club. Any new thread that created the user first censored by the moderator. If deemed feasible and discuss racial intolerance, then the thread will be deleted.

To erase the negative image as a media Kaskus underground and porn sites, Kaskus change the appearance on August 17, 2008. Kaskus created a new look full of color. In addition, Kaskus also added new features like blogs and WAP Kaskus.

Kaspay

There is a new service from Kaskus site that provides online payment system called Kaspay. The service was launched on Friday, November 6, 2009, at the Anniversary Celebration of the 10th Kaskus at Poste, the east building, Kuningan, Jakarta. This transaction service can be used not only in Kaskus but can be used against other sites that are affiliated with Kaspay.

Kaspay will operate like the E-wallet that will be used as a tool for buying and selling transactions in all transactions online. The whole process Kaspay transactions made through transfer a sum of money, making it safe from fraud & forgery mode & security credit card transaction is always assured with a confirmation via e-mail and transaction records.

Awards

2008: Microsoft: Web Sites That KASKUS Indonesia Innovative Recognized as Top Web Site (2008)
2009: Indosat: KASKUS – The Online Inspiring Award 2009
2010: Marketeers Award: Greatest Brand of the Decade

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