Founder of Muhammadiyah
Ahmad Dahlan (Muhammad Darwisy small named), is a pioneer and the father of Islamic renewal. Kyai Haji was born in Yogyakarta, August 1, 1868, this is what Muhammadiyah organization founded on November 18, 1912. National Hero of Indonesia died at the age of 54 years in Yogyakarta, February 23, 1923.
KH Ahmad Dahlan Muhammadiyah organization established to implement the ideals of the renewal of Islam in the archipelago. He wants to hold a renewal in the way of thinking and work according to Islamic religious guidance. He would like to invite Indonesian Muslims to return to live under the guidance of the Qur’an and al-Hadith. He founded the Muhammadiyah not as a political organization but as a social community and religious organizations working in the field of education.
At the time of Ahmad Dahlan catapult the idea of establishment of the Muhammadiyah, he got a challenge even slander, accusations and incitement from both close family or from the surrounding community. He allegedly wanted to establish a new religion that violates the Islamic religion. There are scholars who accused him of false, because it is mimetic Dutch Christian nation and various other charges. There’s even people who want to kill him. But the obstacles are faced with a patient. His determination to continue the ideals and struggles of Islamic renewal in this country can overcome all these obstacles. 1)
For the services of KH Ahmad Dahlan in raising awareness of this nation through the renewal of Islam and education, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia to set it as a National Hero by Presidential Decree no. 657 in 1961. Establishment as a National Hero was based on four main points namely: First, KH Ahmad Dahlan has pioneered the rise of the Islamic Ummah to realize his destiny as a colonized nation that still has to learn and do.
Second, with the founding of Muhammadiyah organization, has provided a pure Islamic teachings to his people. The doctrine that demands progress, intelligence, and do good for society and ummah, on the basis of faith and Islam. Third, with its organization, Muhammadiyah has pioneered social enterprise and education charity which are essential to the revival and advancement of the nation, with the spirit of Islamic teachings. Fourth, with his organization, the Muhammadiyah women (Aisyiyah) has pioneered the rise of Indonesian women to get education.
Raised at the Environmental School
Muhammad Darwisy born from a pioneer family of scholars and the spread and development of Islam in the country. His father, KH Abu Bakr was a scholar and a leading preacher in the Great Mosque of Yogyakarta Sultanate, and his mother, Nyai Abu Bakr is the daughter of H. Ibrahim, who also serves the prince of Yogyakarta Sultanate at that time.
He was the fourth child of seven brothers, five sisters and two men that he himself and his youngest brother. In genealogy, it includes the twelfth descendant of Maulana Malik Ibrahim, a mayor and a leading big among Wali Songo, which is the first pioneer of the spread and development of Islam in Java (Kutojo and Safwan, 1991). 2) Idem
The full pedigree is Muhammad Darwisy (Ahmad Dahlan), son of KH KH Abu Bakr bin Muhammad bin Sulaiman bin Murtadla chaplain chaplain Ilyas bin Demat Demat Djurung omen readers Kapindo bin Djurung omen readers Sapisan Maulana Sulaiman bin Ki Ageng Gribig (Djatinom), son of Maulana Muhammad Fadlul’llah (Prapen ) son Maulana ‘Ainul Yaqin, son of Maulana Ishaq, son of Maulana Malik Ibrahim (Jonah Salam, 1968: 6).
Since childhood, Muhammad Darwisy raised in boarding schools, which membekalinya knowledge of religion and Arabic. At the age of 15 years (1883), he already perform the pilgrimage, which is then followed by studying religion and Arabic in Makkah for five years. He also interacted with the more intense thoughts reformers in the Islamic world, such as Muhammad Abduh, al-Afghani, Rashid Rida, and Ibn Taymiyyah. Interaction with the figures of the Islamic reformers were very influential in the spirit, soul and mind Darwisy.
Spirit, soul and mind that further the accomplishment by displaying the same pattern through Muhammadiyah religious. Aiming to renewed understanding of religion (the Islamic) in most of the Islamic world at that time who still are orthodox (conservative). Ahmad Dahlan looking at properties that will cause rigidity of orthodox Islamic teachings, as well as stagnation and decadence (underdevelopment) Muslims. So he looked, the static religious understanding should be changed and updated, with motion purification or purification of Islam by returning to the Qur’an and al-Hadith.
After five years studying in Mecca, in 1888, when aged 20 years, Darwisy back to his village. He also changed the name to Ahmad Dahlan. Then, he was appointed preacher in the Sultanate of Yogyakarta amen.
In 1902, he performed the pilgrimage a second time, while continuing to deepen their religious knowledge to a few teachers in Mecca until 1904.
On his return from Mecca, he married Siti Walidah, his own cousin, the son of Kyai Haji Fadhil prince. Siti Walidah, later better known by the name of Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, a National Pahlawanan and founder Aisyiyah. The couple have six children namely Djohanah, Siradj Dahlan, Siti Busyro, Irfan Dahlan, Siti Aisyah, Siti Zaharah (Kutojo and Safwan, 1991).
In addition, KH. Ahmad Dahlan had also married Nyai Abdullah, widow of H. Abdullah. He also never married Nyai Rum, brother of Kyai Munawwir Krapyak. KH. Ahmad Dahlan also has a son from his marriage to Mrs. Nyai Ayesha (sister Adjengan prince) named Dandanah Cianjur. He was also married to Yasin Pakualaman Nyai Yogyakarta (Jonah Salam, 1968: 9).
Spirit, soul and mind reformers in the Islamic world, which he gets from Muhammad Abduh, al-Afghani, Rashid Rida, Ibn Taymiyyah and others during the learning of Mecca (1883-1888 and 1902-1904), then the accomplishment by displaying shades of the same religious through Muhammadiyah. Aiming to renewed understanding of religion (the Islamic) in most of the Islamic world at that time who still are orthodox (conservative).
Ahmad Dahlan looking at properties that will cause rigidity of orthodox Islamic teachings, as well as stagnation and decadence (underdevelopment) Muslims. So he looked, the static religious understanding should be changed and updated, with motion purification or purification of Islam by returning to the Qur’an and al-Hadith.
Dahlan was aware that semaangat updates will not necessarily be understood and accepted the family and surrounding community. Not easy to do pemharuan on an orthodoxy that has been frozen. So, whether related or not, there is an advice that he wrote in Arabic for himself.
It reads thus: “O Dahlan, was in front of you there is great danger and events that will surprise you, which you should definitely pass. Maybe you could pass through safely, but maybe you also will perish by it. O Dahlan, try as you imagine if you are alone with God, while you face death, the courts, reckoning, heaven, and hell. And from all that you face it, ponder the closest to you, and leave the other (translated by Djarnawi Hadikusumo).
In an article on the history of Ahmad Dahlan official site Parsyarikatan Muhammadiyah (muhammadiyah.or.id), this message is implying a great spirit about the life hereafter. And to achieve a better life hereafter, then Dahlan think that everyone should seek provision for it by extending the life hereafter worship, good works, broadcast and defend the religion of Allah, and lead the Ummah to the right path and guide them to the charity and the struggle to uphold the sentences God.
Thus, to find the stock reached a good afterlife must have a collective consciousness, which means that efforts must be invoked (da’wah) to the whole mankind through systematic efforts and the collective.
Described in the article, such awareness is what caused Dahlan greatly decline of Muslims in the country. This is bothering her. He felt responsible to awaken, stimulate and promote them. Dahlan was not aware that duty may be performed alone, but must be carried out by several people who are closely coordinated. Cooperation between some people it is not possible without the organization. Society, parsyarikatan and proselytizing movement: Muhammadiyah.
Dahlan also chose a very good strategy to first develop the younger generation to join together to carry out such propaganda efforts, while continuing to promote his ideals of this nation. Moreover, he had the opportunity to accelerate and expand the idea of proselytizing movement Muhammadiyah that by educating the civil service candidates (candidate) who studied in OSVIA Magelang and prospective teachers who studied in Kweekschool Jetis Yogyakarta. Because, he himself was allowed by the colonial government to teach the Islamic religion in both schools.
Of course the candidates can be expected mengaselerasi civil service and expand his ideas, because they will be people who have a broad influence in the community. Similarly, the prospective teachers will soon speed up the process of transforming the idea of proselytizing movement Muhammadiyah, told his students. In order mengintensifkannya, Dahlan also founded a school teacher who was later known as Madrasah Mu’allimin (Kweekschool Muhammadiyah) and Madrasah Mu’allimat (Kweekschool Wife Muhammadiyah). In this school, Dahlan teach Islamic religion and spread the ideals of updates.
Dahlan is known as one who is active in community activities. With brilliant ideas and activities kemasyarakatannya, Dahlan also easily accepted and respected in the community. Includes quickly gain a place in the organization Jam’iyatul Khair, Budi Utomo, Sarekat Islam, and the Comite Defenders Kanjeng Prophet.
In 1912, precisely on 18 November 1912, Ahmad Dahlan was established Muhammadiyah organization to implement the ideals of Islamic renewal. He had a vision to conduct a renewal in a charitable way of thinking and guidance according to the Islamic religion. He would like to invite Indonesian Muslims to return to live under the guidance of the Qur’an and al-Hadith.
Various challenges he faced in connection with the idea that the establishment of Muhammadiyah. Even he was accused of going to establish a new religion that violates the Islamic religion. Kiai false. Until there are also people who want to kill him. But the obstacles are faced with a patient.
Dahlan true to its founding. On December 20, 1912, he filed an application to the Government of the Netherlands East Indies to obtain legal entity. The application was only granted in 1914, with the Government Assessment Letter No. 81 dated August 22, 1914. Apparently, the Government of the Netherlands East Indies there are concerns about the development of this organization. So the license was only applicable to areas of Yogyakarta and the organization is only allowed to move in the Yogyakarta area
However, while Muhammadiyah is limited, but in other areas such as Srandakan, Wonosari, and Imogiri and others have stood where the branch of Muhammadiyah. This is clearly contrary to the Dutch East Indies government’s desire. To fix this, then KH. Ahmad Dahlan work around this by suggesting to branch outside of Yogyakarta Muhammadiyah use another name. For example, Nurul Islam in Pekalongan, Ujung Pandang with the name Al-Munir, in Garut with the name Ahmadiyya.
While in Solo standing association Sidiq Amanah Fathonah Tabligh (SATF) who got the leadership of Muhammadiyah branch. Even in the city of Yogyakarta itself he advocated the jama’ah and associations to hold lectures and run the interests of Islam. Associations and Jama-jama’ah gets guidance from Muhammadiyah, which of them is the Muslim Brotherhood, Taqwimuddin, Light Young, Hambudi-Saints, Khayatul Qulub, Priya President, Council of Islam, Thaharatul Qulub, Thaharatul-Aba, Ta ‘alal awanu birri, bima Ta’ruf right, u wal-Fajri, Wal-Ashri, Jamiyatul Muslims, Syahratul Mubtadi (Kutojo and Safwan, 1991: 33).